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Glycémie, comment régulariser son taux | Nature-Santé

Glycémie, comment régulariser son taux

Lorsqu’on consomme des glucides rapides (sucres) ou lents (féculents), l’organisme les transforme plus ou moins rapidement en sucre sanguin. Ce glucose est le principal « carburant » de l’organisme, et tout spécialement du cerveau. En réaction à la présence de glucose dans le circuit sanguin, l’organisme produit de l’insuline qui a pour fonction d’extraire le glucose du sang et de le transporter dans les cellules des tissus. Une fois que le glucose parvient au niveau cellulaire, il peut être :

  1. utilisé pour produire immédiatement de l’énergie
  2. transformé en glycogène (sucre de réserve) pour un emploi ultérieur
  3. stocké sous forme de graisse
La surconsommation de sucre ou de féculents au cours d’un repas élève brusquement le taux de glucose sanguin, qui retombe aussi rapidement. Ceci provoque en général une nouvelle fringale de glucides pour faire remonter le taux de glycémie. La surconsommation habituelle de glucide entraîne un schéma répétitif de hausses et de baisses rapides des taux de glucose. En bref, plus le sucre qu’on consomme est concentré, plus il est absorbé rapidement et plus le taux de glucose sanguin augmente, et aussi plus il redescend bas et rapidement. À long terme, cette courbe en montagnes russes épuise.
Lorsque cette variation se répète pendant une période prolongée, les cellules de l’organisme perdent leur efficacité à recevoir le glucose, elles manquent donc de glucose pour produire de l’énergie, ce qui entraîne la fatigue.
Les fibres contribuent à ralentir la transformation des glucides. Les aliments riches en fibres aident à régulariser le taux de glucose sanguin. L’organisme utilise alors le glucose stocké dans le tissu adipeux.